The MTR or Mass Transit Railway (HKSE:0066) is the subway train system of Hong Kong. It is operated by MTR Corporations Ltd., a company listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and included in the Hang Seng Index.
The network has 6 lines and 50 stations:
Kwun Tong Line: between Yau Ma Tei and Tiu Keng Leng
Tsuen Wan Line: between Tsuen Wan and Central
Island Line: between Sheung Wan and Chai Wan – on Hong Kong Island
Tseung Kwan O Line: between Po Lam and North Point
Tung Chung Line: between Tung Chung and Hong Kong station (Central)
Airport Express: between the Airport and Hong Kong station (Central)
The fares are divided into several categories of travellers: Adult, elderly, student and child. Except for adults, all can use a discount price for travel, but all with some restrictions. To qualify for the student rate, you need to be a full-time Hong Kong student with MTR student travel card, for the child rate, you have to be under 11 year’s old, and to get the elderly rate you must be above 65 years old.
The adult travel fares are based on distance. For the discount price, it mainly ranges from $3 to $6, but if includes Tung Chung Line the fare can cost $13 dollars. For adult, it ranges from $4 to $13 dollars. If Tung Chung Line is includied, the fare will be $26 dollars.
Other than Tung Chung Line, if you also include the airport express, the adult fare costs $100 each time, while children and the elderly cost $50 per journey.
There are two payment methods: Octopus card or Single Journey fare. Extra discounts are given for using an Octopus card.
History of MTR corporation and its business scope
The Mass Transit Railway Corporation was established in 1975 as a government wholly owned statutory corporation and on June 30, 2000 was succeeded by MTR Corporation Limited. The principal business is to operate the mass transit railway system. With its reliable operation, business management and planning, it has become a safe, comfortable, fast and effective means of transportation that is widely used by Hong Kong people. Following a successful initial public offering, the shares of MTR were listed on the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong on October 5, 2000.
Besides railway operations, the Corporation is also actively involved in the development of key residential and commercial projects above existing stations and along new line extensions as well as many other commercial activities associated with the railway. This includes rental of retail and poster advertising space, ATM banking facilities and personal telecommunication services. It also provides consultancy services to organizations worldwide.
History of the MTR system
During the 1960′s, the Hong Kong government felt a need to accommodate the increasing traffic predicted for the coming decades and appointed British transport consultants Freeman, Fox, Wilbur Smith & Associates to study the transport system of Hong Kong. The consultants finished the “Hong Kong Mass Transport Study” in September 1967 with a proposal of the construction of an underground mass transit system.
In 1970, a network of underground system was laid with four lines — the Kwun Tong Line, Tsuen Wan Line, Island Line and East Kowloon Line. The lines with the same name as the in the present network in the then proposed system was slightly different from the present system.
In 1972, the Hong Kong government authorized the construction of Kwun Tong Line, which was the initial system.
In 1973 the government slightly reduced the system and renamed it as the Modified Initial System. The HK government also set up the Mass Transit Railway Corporation to replace the Mass Transport Provisional Authority to supervise the whole construction. The East Kowloon Line was decided not to be built then.
In October 1, 1979, the MTR was partially opened, with trains running from Shek Kip Mei to Kwun Tong.
MTR Octopus Access Control System
Since 1997, the Corporation has launched the Octopus Access Control System and the firm became the pioneer in using this payment system. The octopus card is a rechargeable contact-less smart card. Money is “stored” in the card. The amount can be automatically calculated and deducted. You can check the remaining value by simply using the fare deducting processor in the station. The system has proven so popular, it has been extended to different services such as transportation, supermarkets and fast food restaurants. It has the potential to be further developed in other fields of services. The older, traditional ticketing system is still running at present.
The MTR Corporation invested heavily to develop large scale shopping centres around the MTR stations. An example is the Maritime Square at Tsing Yi station, a nautical-themed mall in which there are supermarkets, boutiques, bookstores, a cinema, and restaurants, etc. It is also easily accessible by other transportation means including buses and taxis. Other shopping centers developed and managed by the corporation include Paradise Mall, Telford Plaza, and Luk Yeung Galleria. It is one of the goals of the MTR Corporation to provide a high quality working and living environment around its railway stations.
Property is the main business of the Corporation. They try to develop suitable sites related to their new railway projects and their existing railway. For instance, the reclaimed land situated on the west Kowloon, will become an area with residential, office and retail development. Two banks in Hong Kong, HSBC and Bank of China, have office towers there. Furthermore, there are residential flats nearby, provided with more than 7000 flats. Recreational facilities, market, schools and transport interchanges are also available. This idea fulfills the aspiration of people nowadays. Such innovative concept achieves their goal to respond to customer’s changing desire and with technological advances.
MTR Property Agency and Consultant Services
MTR Corporation extends their share in the properties field by establishing the one-stop property agency and consultant services. Well experienced, qualified and professional consultants are readily available to provide information about the new and second-hand market sales and rental issues for the buyers and sellers.
The firm also has their own team of professionals who are experts in the technology of construction, marketing, financing and any other fields. Hence they can maintain the quality of services by themselves.
Metropolis Dialy Newspaper
Metropolis Daily Hong Kong was launched on 15 April 2002 and was distributed for free in racks of 49 MTR stations.
Trains of Urban Routes
Trains of the urban routes of the MTR system can be divided into 2 catergories, the M-Stocks from Alstom Transport (formerly known as the Metro Cammell and the modern K-stocks from Korea Rolling Stock Company
Each train is composed of 8 cars, rail gauge is 1432mm, powered by 1500volt of direct ciruit electricity.
All cars running urban lines have 5 doors on each side.
The cars of the urban routes can be subdivided into four typess as follows:
A cars: cars with driver cab and motor, 22850mm in length. There are 191 M-Stock A cars in the MTR system in 2003.
B cars: cars with motor, 22000mm in length. There are 96 M-Stock B cars in MTR in 2003.
C cars: cars with motor and pantograph, 22000mm in length. There are 287 M-Stock C-cars in MTR in 2003.
D cars: trailers only, 23160mm in length. In 2003 MTR owns 188 M-Stock D cars.
The configuration of a service M-Stock train is A-C-D-B-C-D-C-A
Each car is 3000mm width over body panel, floor to rail is 1100mm high and roof to rail is 3700mm high.
A service train has an acceleration of 1.0m/s/s, service brake is regenerative blend with air-brake at the rate of 1.0m/s/s and emergency brake is air-brake at 1.4m/s/s. Maximum speed is 80km/h.
Primary suspension is Chevron Springs, secondary suspension is air bags.
Traction system of M-Stocks is gate turn off chopper control
Each car has 45 seats and capable of holding 268 standing passengers, with an additional space for wheelchair. Control systems are ATC (automatic train control and ATP automatic train protection.
K-Stock trains have 3 types of cars:
A cars: cars with driver cab and motor. In 2003 there are 26 K-Stock A cars in MTR system. B cars: cars with motor. In 2003 there are 39 K-Stock B cars in MTR system. C cars: cars with motor and pantograph. There are 39 K-Stock C cars in the MTR system in 2003.
Since it is much heavier than M-Stocks, it does not have any cars similar to D cars in M-Stocks. K-Stock cars currently only service the Kwun Tong Line, the configuration of a K-Stock train is A-C-B-C-B-B-C-A.
All K-Stock cars are 22000mm in length, 3118mm in width, 3698mm in height.
Maximum speed of K-Stock is 80km/h, maximum acceleration is 1.3m/s/s, maximum service deceleration rate is 0.8~1.35m/s/s, emergency deceleration is 1.4m/s/s
K-Stock train also installed ATC and ATP.
K-Stocks come into service for MTR since August, 2002. This modern train is equipped with the modern 4th generation IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) VVVF converter from Hitachi.
Trains of Tung Chung Line and Airport Express Line
Trains of both Tung Chung Line (TCL) and Airport Express Line (AEL) are all manufactured jointly in Spain by ADTranz and CAF. Track gauge for these two lines are both 1432mm and power supply are both 1500 volt direct cicuit
Trains of TCL
Trains of TCL are made up of 7 cars up until 2003, but TCL trains are capable of running with 10 cars in total. Cars of TCL trains can be divided into 5 types:
V cars: cars with driver’s cab, motor, pantograph. They are 24600mm in length, with 42 seats, 2 wheelchair spaces andcan hold up to 252 standing passengers. In 2003 MTR corporation owns 24 V-cars. W cars: cars with motor. They are 22500mm in length, with 48 seats and can hold up to 252 standing passengers. In 2003 there are 24 W cars in MTR system. X cars: X cars are trailers with auto-coupler, they are 22500mm in length, with 48 seats and can hold 252 standing passengers. In 2003 there are 24 cars in MTR system. Y cars: cars with motor and pantograph. Y cars are 22500mm in length. They have 48 seats and can hold 252 standing passengers. In 2003 there are 12 cars in MTR system. Z cars: cars with motor with auto-coupler. They are 22500mm in length, with 48 seats and capable of carrying 252 standing passengers. There are 12 Z cars in the MTR system in 2003.
The configuration of a TCL train is V-W-X-Y-X-Z-V.
Maximum train speed of a TCL train is 135km/h, maximum acceleration is 1m/s/s, maximum service brake rate is 1.1m/s/s, emergency brake has deceleration of 1.35m/s/s.
TCL trains are equipped with ATC and ATP.
Traction system of TCL trains is gate turn off thyristor (GTO thyristor)
Each car in TCL has 5 doors on each side.
Trains of the Airport Express Line
Trains of Airport Express Line (AEL) are made up of 7 cars up until 2003 although they can be running with 10 cars per train. Cars of AEL trains can be divided into 6 types:
E cars: cars with driver cab, motor and pantograph, they have length of 24600mm , with 60 seats, 1 wheelchair space and can hold 84 standing passengers. In 2003 MTR Corp. has 11 E cars.
F cars: cars with motor, they are 22500mm in length, they have 64 seats, 1 wheelchair space and can hold 84 standing passengers. There are 22 F cars in the MTR system in 2003.
G cars: G cars are trailers with auto-coupler, they are 22500mm in length and have the same passenger carrying capability as F cars. There are 22 G cars in the MTR system in 2003.
H cars: cars with motor, auto-coupler and pantograph. They are 22500mm in length and have the same passenger carrying capability as F cars. There are 11 H cars in the MTR system in 2003.
J cars: cars with motor and auto-coupler. They are 22500mm in length and with the same passenger carrying capability as F cars. In 2003 there are 11 J cars in MTR system.
K cars: cars with driver cab, motor and pantograph. Each K car is 24600mm in length, K cars do not hold passengers but can hold 13 luggage containers. In 2003 MTR Corp. owns 11 K cars.
Configuration of an AEL train is E-F-G-H-G-J-K
Except for K cars that have 5 doors on each side, all other cars in AEL have 2 door each side.
Maximum speed of AEL trains is 135km/h, maximum acceleration is 1m/s/s, maximum service deceleration is 1.1m/s/s, emergency brake can deliver deceleration of 1.35m/s/s.
All AEL trains have ATC and ATP installed. Traction of AEL trains are GTO Thyrsitor.