Category Archives: Transportation

Hongqiao Airport

Hongqiao Airport is one of the two airports in Shanghai.

Hongqiao Airport once had the international flights into Shanghai. As soon as Pu Dong International Airport appeared, Hongqiao lost its international service.

Connecting transport
Two taxi ranks, divided in to long and short distance, service the airport.

A bus stop provides various services to other parts of the city. As of October 2003, one minibus route terminates at Jing An Temple station, and costs four renminbi.

Chinese Visa Application — A Brief Introduction to Chinese Visa

FOR YOUR REFERENCE ONLY. Always contact the Chinese embassy or consulate general in your country or region for the most up to date information.

The following documents should be submitted when applying for Chinese visa:

  1. Passport with at least 6 months remaining validity and available blank pages for visa
  2. One properly completed visa application form, which could be obtained from the Chinese Embassy or Consulate-General in person, or by mail with a pre-paid return envelope, or be downloaded from the following website:
  3. A recent passport-size photo stuck on the visa application form

Chinese visa is a permit issued to a foreigner by the Chinese visa authorities for entry into, exit from or transit through the Chinese territory. The Chinese visa authorities may issue a Diplomatic, Courtesy, Service or Ordinary Visa to a foreigner according to his/her identity, purpose of visit to China and passport type.

The Ordinary Visa consists of eight sub-categories, which are respectively marked with Chinese phonetic letters L, F, Z, X, C, G, D, J-1and J-2.

L Visa: Issued to an applicant who comes to China for tourist purposes, family visiting or other personal affairs.

F Visa: Issued to an applicant who is invited to China for visit, research, lecture, business, scientific-technological and culture exchanges or short-term advanced studies or intern practice for a period of no more than six months. also see:

Z Visa: Issued to an applicant who is to take up a post or employment in China, and their accompanying family members also see

X Visa: Issued to an applicant who comes to China for the purpose of study, advanced studies or intern practice for a period over six months. also see:

C Visa: Issued to crewmembers on international aviation, navigation and land transportation missions and family members accompanying them.

G Visa: Issued to those who transit through China. also see :

D Visa: Issued to applicant who is to reside permanently in China.

J-1 Visa: Issued to foreign resident correspondents in China.

J-2 Visa: Issued to foreign correspondents on temporary interview missions in China.

Validity of Visa: normally speaking, a visa is valid for 3 months from the date of issuance (date of application) and on any day within this period, the visa holder may enter China.

Duration of Stay Specified in the Visa: normally speaking, a visa holder may stay in China for 1 month which counts from the date of his/her entrance into China. To stay longer, you need to specify your request in your application form and it’ll be subject to the permission of the consul in charge.

Overseas Chinese Visa Authorities,

Transportation in Taiwan

total: 2,481 km (519 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 2,481 km 1.067-m (1999)

Taiwan’s High Speed Rail:
It is currently under construction. It runs approximately 345 kilometer from Taipei to Kaohsiung. It adopted Japan’s Shinkansen technology for the core system. It will use 700T Series Shinkansen.

total: 34,901 km
paved: 31,271 km (including 538 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,630 km (1998 est.)

petroleum products 3,400 km; natural gas 1,800 km (1999)

Ports and harbors:
Chi-lung (Keelung), Hua-lien, Kao-hsiung, Su-ao, T’ai-chung

Merchant marine:
total: 175 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,944,166 GRT/7,710,891 DWT
ships by type: bulk 45, cargo 33, combination bulk 1, container 69, petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 8, roll-on/roll-off 2 (1999 est.)

38 (1999 est.)

Airports – with paved runways:
total: 35
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports – with unpaved runways:
total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

2 (1999 est.)

Transportation in Macau

Roads and Bridges
Macau has 321 kilometers of public roads. Two highway bridges link Macau to Zhuhai, the most recent of which, the 1.3-kilometer-long, six-lane Lotus Bridge, opened in December 1999. Two bridges link peninsular Macau with Taipa. The first, a 2.6 kilometer-long highway bridge, was completed in 1974; the second, completed in 1994 to serve the new Macau International Airport, is 4.4 kilometers long and four lanes wide. An eight-kilometer-long dual-lane highway links the airport and the Zhuhai border crossing. Taipa is connected to Coloane with a 2.2-kilometer-long causeway. The 38-kilometer-long connector, to be called the Lingdingyang Bridge, has been proposed to link Macau and Zhuhai with Shenzhen and Hong Kong.

Buses and numerous taxicabs provide public transportation. Motorists in 1999 used some 55,114 automobiles and trucks and 58,116 motorcycles.

total:50 km
paved: 50 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Sea Transportation
Jetfoils, turbo catamarans, and catamarans operate between the Macau Maritime Terminal and Hong Kong (Central or Kowloon, depending on type of craft). The trip between Macau and Hong Kong takes between 55 and 70 minutes depending on the type of craft. About 150 trips per day are made between Macau and Hong Kong. The Macau Maritime Terminal is located on the east shore of the Macau Peninsula (Macau outer harbor). The Macau Container Port, located near the Macau International Airport, was opened in 1991. Vessels leaving the port provide multiple daily round trips to Hong Kong and regular container ship service to Taiwan, Singapore, and to Chinese ports within the Zhujiang estuary. Macau’s shallow harbor and channels, however, limit the size and number of ships that can enter the port.

Merchant marine:
none (1999 est.)

Air Transportation
Airports:1 (1999 est.) Airports – with paved runways: Macau International Airport
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

The Macau International Airport opened in December 1995 on reclaimed land on the east side of Taipa. It handles commercial and general aviation and accommodates all major aircraft up to Boeing 747-400s. There are two offshore runways (3,285 meters and 3,360 meters) and one taxiway (1,460 meters). Up to 6 million passengers per year capacity is available. Air Macau (established 1994 with 51 percent ownership by China) and more than twenty other airlines provide international flights to and from Singapore, Manila, Bangkok, Pyongyang, Anchorage, and Los Angeles; and domestic flights to and from Taiwan (Taipei and Kaohsiung), Beijing, Chongqing, Fuzhou, Guilin, Haikou, Kunming, Nanjing, Ningbo, Sanya, Shanghai, Wuhan, Xiamen, Xi’an, and Zhengzhou. Around 200 flights are scheduled per week. Helicopter service is available every 30 minutes during the day from the Macau Maritime Terminal to central Hong Kong.

Beijing Capital International Airport

Beijing Capital International Airport is an airport in Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Its IATA Airport Code is PEK. The airport is a hub for Air China.

The airport used to be remote when it was first created in the early days. Then, a solitary, narrow road served it from the area now known as Sanyuanqiao.

When China started opening up in the 1980s, the airport was full of activity and the tiny, narrow road that used to serve it was tested to the limit. As a result, in the early 1990s, a nearly 20 km. stretch of toll expressway — the Airport Expressway — connecting downtown Beijing from the Northeastern 3rd Ring Road at Sanyuanqiao directly to the airport was opened.

At least two other expressways linking to the airport are planned before 2008. One of them is a stretch of add-on expressway from the Jingcheng Expressway. Work is due to begin in 2004.

There are currently no light rail or underground routes serving the airport; however, a light rail extension to underground line 13 is in the works and will be completed in time for the 2008 Olympics.

With the incessant influx of foreign visitors and increasing domestic air traffic, the then relatively small airport, expanded in the 1980s, was unable to handle the mass traffic efficiently.

In late 1999, to mark the 50th anniversary of the founding of the PRC, the airport was expanded again. (This is the Beijing airport of today.) Another, even more ambitious expansion, is in the works, due for completion in time for the 2008 Olympics.

It is very difficult for airlines to get coveted rights into Mainland China. American Airlines and Delta Air Lines want rights into China, but at the last time that rights were given out, they went to Federal Express.

The following airlines fly to Beijing Capital International Airport:
* Air Canada
* Air China
* Air France
* Air Koryo
* Air Macau
* Air Russia
* Alitalia
* All Nippon Airways
* Asiana Airlines
* Austrian Airlines
* Belavia Airlines
* British Airways
* China Eastern
* China Great Wall Corporation
* China National Aviation Company
* China North Airlines
* China Northern
* China Northwest
* China Southern
* China Southwest
* China Yunnan
* Dragonair
* El Al
* Ethiopian Airlines
* Finnair
* Hainan Airlines
* Hina Xinhua Airlines
* Iran Air
* Japan Airlines
* Jat Airways
* Kazakhstan Airlines
* Kirkstan Airlines
* Korean Air
* Lufthansa
* Malaysia Airlines
* MALEV Hungarian
* MIAT Mongolian
* Northwest Airlines
* Pakistan International Airlines
* Scandinavian Airlines System
* Shandong Airlines
* Shanxi Airlines
* Shannxi Airlines
* Shenzheng Airlines
* Siberian Airlines
* Sichuan Airlines
* Singapore Airlines
* Swiss International Airlines
* Thai Airways International
* Turkish Airlines
* Ukraine International
* United Airlines
* Uzbekistan Airways
* Wuhan Airlines
* Xiamen Airlines
* Zhongyuan Airlines

Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation

Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC) is wholly owned by the Hong Kong SAR government and based in Hong Kong. It owns and operates the Kowloon-Canton Railway (KCR) and the Light Rail Transit System.

KCRC has three major rail lines – the original Kowloon-Canton Railway – known as the ‘East Rail’, the ‘Light Rail’ system serving the ‘New Towns’ in northwestern New Territories, and the ‘West Rail’, which links the northwestern New Territories to the city.

KCR East Rail and Light Rail move more than one million people per day.

KCR offers domestic train services in Kowloon and the northeast New Territories, and a cross-boundary service into mainland China. The cross-boundary East Rail has been KCRC’s dominant revenue generator and key growth area. It is the only rail link to mainland China, capturing over 70% of all passenger traffic.

KCRC generates income from property management, development and other commercial activities as well.

Commuters can buy tickets or use the Octopus card for fare payment.

Recently the company has introduced 20% discount for passengers using KCR return on the same day.

West Rail opened on December 20, 2003.

Future developments
Talk of a merger between KCRC and the MTR to make the territory’s transport system more efficient has been a heated topic since 2002. MTRC, which was listed in 2000 with the government retaining a majority stake, backed a merger while government-owned KCRC opposed the plan.

KCRC is building a HKD 31 billion rail project linking the suburban new town of Shatin to the Central business district. The massive expansion will more than double its network by around 2009/10.

East Rail
The stations of the East Rail are (from South to North):

Hung Hom
Mong Kok
Kowloon Tong
Tai Wai
Sha Tin
Fo Tan
Tai Po Market
Tai Wo
Sheung Shui

West Rail
The stations of the West Rail are (East to West):

Nam Cheong
Mei Foo
Tsuen Wan West
Kam Sheung Road
Yuen Long
Long Ping
Tin Shui Wai
Siu Hong
Tuen Mun


The MTR or Mass Transit Railway (HKSE:0066) is the subway train system of Hong Kong. It is operated by MTR Corporations Ltd., a company listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and included in the Hang Seng Index.

The network has 6 lines and 50 stations:

Kwun Tong Line: between Yau Ma Tei and Tiu Keng Leng
Tsuen Wan Line: between Tsuen Wan and Central
Island Line: between Sheung Wan and Chai Wan – on Hong Kong Island
Tseung Kwan O Line: between Po Lam and North Point
Tung Chung Line: between Tung Chung and Hong Kong station (Central)
Airport Express: between the Airport and Hong Kong station (Central)

Travel fare
The fares are divided into several categories of travellers: Adult, elderly, student and child. Except for adults, all can use a discount price for travel, but all with some restrictions. To qualify for the student rate, you need to be a full-time Hong Kong student with MTR student travel card, for the child rate, you have to be under 11 year’s old, and to get the elderly rate you must be above 65 years old.

The adult travel fares are based on distance. For the discount price, it mainly ranges from $3 to $6, but if includes Tung Chung Line the fare can cost $13 dollars. For adult, it ranges from $4 to $13 dollars. If Tung Chung Line is includied, the fare will be $26 dollars.

Other than Tung Chung Line, if you also include the airport express, the adult fare costs $100 each time, while children and the elderly cost $50 per journey.

There are two payment methods: Octopus card or Single Journey fare. Extra discounts are given for using an Octopus card.

History of MTR corporation and its business scope
The Mass Transit Railway Corporation was established in 1975 as a government wholly owned statutory corporation and on June 30, 2000 was succeeded by MTR Corporation Limited. The principal business is to operate the mass transit railway system. With its reliable operation, business management and planning, it has become a safe, comfortable, fast and effective means of transportation that is widely used by Hong Kong people. Following a successful initial public offering, the shares of MTR were listed on the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong on October 5, 2000.

Besides railway operations, the Corporation is also actively involved in the development of key residential and commercial projects above existing stations and along new line extensions as well as many other commercial activities associated with the railway. This includes rental of retail and poster advertising space, ATM banking facilities and personal telecommunication services. It also provides consultancy services to organizations worldwide.

History of the MTR system
During the 1960′s, the Hong Kong government felt a need to accommodate the increasing traffic predicted for the coming decades and appointed British transport consultants Freeman, Fox, Wilbur Smith & Associates to study the transport system of Hong Kong. The consultants finished the “Hong Kong Mass Transport Study” in September 1967 with a proposal of the construction of an underground mass transit system.

In 1970, a network of underground system was laid with four lines — the Kwun Tong Line, Tsuen Wan Line, Island Line and East Kowloon Line. The lines with the same name as the in the present network in the then proposed system was slightly different from the present system.

In 1972, the Hong Kong government authorized the construction of Kwun Tong Line, which was the initial system.

In 1973 the government slightly reduced the system and renamed it as the Modified Initial System. The HK government also set up the Mass Transit Railway Corporation to replace the Mass Transport Provisional Authority to supervise the whole construction. The East Kowloon Line was decided not to be built then.

In October 1, 1979, the MTR was partially opened, with trains running from Shek Kip Mei to Kwun Tong.

MTR Octopus Access Control System
Since 1997, the Corporation has launched the Octopus Access Control System and the firm became the pioneer in using this payment system. The octopus card is a rechargeable contact-less smart card. Money is “stored” in the card. The amount can be automatically calculated and deducted. You can check the remaining value by simply using the fare deducting processor in the station. The system has proven so popular, it has been extended to different services such as transportation, supermarkets and fast food restaurants. It has the potential to be further developed in other fields of services. The older, traditional ticketing system is still running at present.

Shopping Malls
The MTR Corporation invested heavily to develop large scale shopping centres around the MTR stations. An example is the Maritime Square at Tsing Yi station, a nautical-themed mall in which there are supermarkets, boutiques, bookstores, a cinema, and restaurants, etc. It is also easily accessible by other transportation means including buses and taxis. Other shopping centers developed and managed by the corporation include Paradise Mall, Telford Plaza, and Luk Yeung Galleria. It is one of the goals of the MTR Corporation to provide a high quality working and living environment around its railway stations.

Properties Management
Property is the main business of the Corporation. They try to develop suitable sites related to their new railway projects and their existing railway. For instance, the reclaimed land situated on the west Kowloon, will become an area with residential, office and retail development. Two banks in Hong Kong, HSBC and Bank of China, have office towers there. Furthermore, there are residential flats nearby, provided with more than 7000 flats. Recreational facilities, market, schools and transport interchanges are also available. This idea fulfills the aspiration of people nowadays. Such innovative concept achieves their goal to respond to customer’s changing desire and with technological advances.

MTR Property Agency and Consultant Services
MTR Corporation extends their share in the properties field by establishing the one-stop property agency and consultant services. Well experienced, qualified and professional consultants are readily available to provide information about the new and second-hand market sales and rental issues for the buyers and sellers.

The firm also has their own team of professionals who are experts in the technology of construction, marketing, financing and any other fields. Hence they can maintain the quality of services by themselves.

Metropolis Dialy Newspaper
Metropolis Daily Hong Kong was launched on 15 April 2002 and was distributed for free in racks of 49 MTR stations.

Trains of Urban Routes
Trains of the urban routes of the MTR system can be divided into 2 catergories, the M-Stocks from Alstom Transport (formerly known as the Metro Cammell and the modern K-stocks from Korea Rolling Stock Company

Each train is composed of 8 cars, rail gauge is 1432mm, powered by 1500volt of direct ciruit electricity.

All cars running urban lines have 5 doors on each side.

The cars of the urban routes can be subdivided into four typess as follows:

A cars: cars with driver cab and motor, 22850mm in length. There are 191 M-Stock A cars in the MTR system in 2003.

B cars: cars with motor, 22000mm in length. There are 96 M-Stock B cars in MTR in 2003.
C cars: cars with motor and pantograph, 22000mm in length. There are 287 M-Stock C-cars in MTR in 2003.

D cars: trailers only, 23160mm in length. In 2003 MTR owns 188 M-Stock D cars.

The configuration of a service M-Stock train is A-C-D-B-C-D-C-A

Each car is 3000mm width over body panel, floor to rail is 1100mm high and roof to rail is 3700mm high.

A service train has an acceleration of 1.0m/s/s, service brake is regenerative blend with air-brake at the rate of 1.0m/s/s and emergency brake is air-brake at 1.4m/s/s. Maximum speed is 80km/h.

Primary suspension is Chevron Springs, secondary suspension is air bags.

Traction system of M-Stocks is gate turn off chopper control

Each car has 45 seats and capable of holding 268 standing passengers, with an additional space for wheelchair. Control systems are ATC (automatic train control and ATP automatic train protection.

K-Stock trains have 3 types of cars:

A cars: cars with driver cab and motor. In 2003 there are 26 K-Stock A cars in MTR system. B cars: cars with motor. In 2003 there are 39 K-Stock B cars in MTR system. C cars: cars with motor and pantograph. There are 39 K-Stock C cars in the MTR system in 2003.

Since it is much heavier than M-Stocks, it does not have any cars similar to D cars in M-Stocks. K-Stock cars currently only service the Kwun Tong Line, the configuration of a K-Stock train is A-C-B-C-B-B-C-A.

All K-Stock cars are 22000mm in length, 3118mm in width, 3698mm in height.

Maximum speed of K-Stock is 80km/h, maximum acceleration is 1.3m/s/s, maximum service deceleration rate is 0.8~1.35m/s/s, emergency deceleration is 1.4m/s/s

K-Stock train also installed ATC and ATP.

K-Stocks come into service for MTR since August, 2002. This modern train is equipped with the modern 4th generation IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) VVVF converter from Hitachi.

Trains of Tung Chung Line and Airport Express Line
Trains of both Tung Chung Line (TCL) and Airport Express Line (AEL) are all manufactured jointly in Spain by ADTranz and CAF. Track gauge for these two lines are both 1432mm and power supply are both 1500 volt direct cicuit

Trains of TCL
Trains of TCL are made up of 7 cars up until 2003, but TCL trains are capable of running with 10 cars in total. Cars of TCL trains can be divided into 5 types:

V cars: cars with driver’s cab, motor, pantograph. They are 24600mm in length, with 42 seats, 2 wheelchair spaces andcan hold up to 252 standing passengers. In 2003 MTR corporation owns 24 V-cars. W cars: cars with motor. They are 22500mm in length, with 48 seats and can hold up to 252 standing passengers. In 2003 there are 24 W cars in MTR system. X cars: X cars are trailers with auto-coupler, they are 22500mm in length, with 48 seats and can hold 252 standing passengers. In 2003 there are 24 cars in MTR system. Y cars: cars with motor and pantograph. Y cars are 22500mm in length. They have 48 seats and can hold 252 standing passengers. In 2003 there are 12 cars in MTR system. Z cars: cars with motor with auto-coupler. They are 22500mm in length, with 48 seats and capable of carrying 252 standing passengers. There are 12 Z cars in the MTR system in 2003.

The configuration of a TCL train is V-W-X-Y-X-Z-V.

Maximum train speed of a TCL train is 135km/h, maximum acceleration is 1m/s/s, maximum service brake rate is 1.1m/s/s, emergency brake has deceleration of 1.35m/s/s.

TCL trains are equipped with ATC and ATP.

Traction system of TCL trains is gate turn off thyristor (GTO thyristor)

Each car in TCL has 5 doors on each side.

Trains of the Airport Express Line
Trains of Airport Express Line (AEL) are made up of 7 cars up until 2003 although they can be running with 10 cars per train. Cars of AEL trains can be divided into 6 types:

E cars: cars with driver cab, motor and pantograph, they have length of 24600mm , with 60 seats, 1 wheelchair space and can hold 84 standing passengers. In 2003 MTR Corp. has 11 E cars.

F cars: cars with motor, they are 22500mm in length, they have 64 seats, 1 wheelchair space and can hold 84 standing passengers. There are 22 F cars in the MTR system in 2003.

G cars: G cars are trailers with auto-coupler, they are 22500mm in length and have the same passenger carrying capability as F cars. There are 22 G cars in the MTR system in 2003.

H cars: cars with motor, auto-coupler and pantograph. They are 22500mm in length and have the same passenger carrying capability as F cars. There are 11 H cars in the MTR system in 2003.

J cars: cars with motor and auto-coupler. They are 22500mm in length and with the same passenger carrying capability as F cars. In 2003 there are 11 J cars in MTR system.

K cars: cars with driver cab, motor and pantograph. Each K car is 24600mm in length, K cars do not hold passengers but can hold 13 luggage containers. In 2003 MTR Corp. owns 11 K cars.

Configuration of an AEL train is E-F-G-H-G-J-K

Except for K cars that have 5 doors on each side, all other cars in AEL have 2 door each side.

Maximum speed of AEL trains is 135km/h, maximum acceleration is 1m/s/s, maximum service deceleration is 1.1m/s/s, emergency brake can deliver deceleration of 1.35m/s/s.

All AEL trains have ATC and ATP installed. Traction of AEL trains are GTO Thyrsitor.

Transportation in Hong Kong

The main islands Hong Kong Island and Lantau are both connected to the Kowloon peninsula with bridges and tunnels, both for road and rail traffic. As public transport is well-developed, the rate of car ownership is fairly low.

Most mass and local transit takes advantage of the Octopus card for fare collection. The city is accessible by an efficient MTR subway system, buses, light buses, electric tram and taxi cabs.

Escalators and moving sidewalks
Hong Kong Island is dominated by steep, hilly terrain, which makes it the home of some rather unusual methods of transport up and down the slopes. In the Central and Western district there is an extensive system of escalators and moving sidewalks. The Midlevels Escalator is the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world, operating downhill in the morning for commuters going to work, and working uphill the rest of the time.

The whole system is 800 meters long, the vertical climb is 135 meters. Total travel time is 20 minutes, but most people walk while the system moves to shorten the travel time. Due to its vertical climb, the same distance is equivalent to several miles of zigzagging roads if travelled by car. It consists of 20 escalators and 3 moving sidewalks. Daily traffic exceeds 35000 people. It has been operating since 1993. It cost HK$ 240 million (around US $30 million) to build.

Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC) – 2 lines plus light rail
-East Rail: total 34 km, standard gauge (1.435-m gauge), all electrified. 13 stations connecting Lo Wu to Hung Hom.
-West Rail: total 30.5 km, 9 stations connecting Tuen Mun to Nam Cheong.
-Light Rail Transit: Light railway system totalling 36.15 km. 68 stations serving the northwest New Territories.
-Several extensions planned and under construction, including Ma On Shan Rail, Lok Ma Chau Spur line, Tsim Sha Tsui Extension, Kowloon Southern Link, and Sha Tin to Central Link.

Mass Transit Railway Corporation (MTR) – 6 lines, 50 stations
-Kwun Tong Line: between Yau Ma Tei and Tiu Keng Leng
-Tsuen Wan Line: between Tsuen Wan and Central
-Island Line: between Sheung Wan and Chai Wan – on Hong Kong Island
-Tseung Kwan O Line: between Po Lam and North Point
-Tung Chung Line: between Tung Chung and Hong Kong station (Central)
-Airport Express: between the Airport and Hong Kong station (Central)

Hong Kong Tramways – double-decker trams, operating in northern Hong Kong Island from Kennedy Town to Shaukeiwan.

Peak Tram – a cable car on rails with 5 stations, connecting Central and the Victoria Peak.

total: 1,831 km
paved: 1,831 km
unpaved: 0 km (1997)

Bridges and Tunnels
There are 12 vehicular tunnels in Hong Kong. They include 3 cross-harbor tunnels and 9 road tunnels. The cross-harbor tunnels are: Cross-Harbour Tunnel (opened 1972), Eastern Harbour Crossing (1989), Western Harbour Crossing (1997). They connect Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula across Victoria Harbour.

Bridges include:
Tsing Ma Bridge, part of the Lantau Link
Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge (in project)

Five companies operate franchised public bus services in Hong Kong:

Citybus Limited
New World First Bus Services Limited
Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Limited (KMB)
Long Win Bus Company Limited
New Lantao Bus Company (1973) Limited
There are also a variety of non-franchised public buses services, including feeder bus services to railway stations operated by the railway companies, and residents’ services for residential estates (particularly those in the New Territories).

Mini buses
Many minibuses (red roof) and maxicabs (green roof) typically serve areas less accessible by buses.

Mini buses only hold 16 passengers without any standing space. They are slightly more expensive than buses but run much more frequently and take a more direct route than buses.

Taxis of different colours serve different areas:

Red: Hong Kong Island and Kowloon (“urban area”)
Green: New Territories
Blue: Lantau Island
As of 2003, there are 18,138 taxis in Hong Kong, of which 15,250 are urban taxis, 2,838 are NT taxis and 50 are Lantau taxis. Everyday they serve about 1.1 million, 207,900 and 1,400 people respectively.

Private cars
There are 517,000 vehicles with license in Hong Kong, including 64% private cars.

Merchant marine:
total: 271 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,942,646 GRT/13,101,275 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 157, cargo 28, chemical tanker 5, combination bulk 2, container 53, liquified gas 5, multi-functional large load carrier 2, petroleum tanker 14, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 3 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 13 countries among which are UK 16, South Africa 3, China 9, Japan 6, Bermuda 2, Germany 3, Canada 2, Cyprus 1, Belgium 1, and Norway 1 (1998 est.)


Within Hong Kong
Most of the ferry services are provided by licensed ferry operators. As of September 2003, there were 27 regular licensed passenger ferry services operated by 11 licensees, serving outlying islands, new towns and inner-Victoria Harbour. The two routes operated by the Star Ferry are franchised (vs. licensed). Additionally, 78 “kaito” ferry services are licensed to serve remote coastal settlements.

In 2002, ferry passengers amounted to 55 million.

The following companies operate ferries in Hong Kong:

The Star Ferry:
Central to Tsim Sha Tsui
Wanchai to Tsim Sha Tsui
Central to Hung Hom
Wan Chai to Hung Hom
The First Ferry:
Central to Cheung Chau / Mui Wo (Lantau Island) / Peng Chau
Tsim Sha Tsui – Mui Wo – Cheung Chau (weekends only)
Peng Chau – Mui Wo – Chi Ma Wan (Lantau) – Cheung Chau
North Point to Hung Hom / Kowloon City
Hong Kong & Kowloon Ferry:
Lamma Island to Central / Aberdeen / Pak Kok Tsuen
HKR International Limited:
Discovery Bay to Central
Discovery Bay to Mui Wo
Central to Tsim Sha Tsui (East)
Park Island Transport Company Ltd.:
Ma Wan to Central
Ma Wan to Tsuen Wan

Between Hong Kong and other places
A ferry service by hydrofoil between Hong Kong and Macau is available 24 hours a day, every day. Gamblers from Hong Kong often take a one-day excursion to that city.

The following companies operate ferries to locations outside of Hong Kong:

Chu Kong Passenger Transport (CKS) connects Hong Kong to cities in Guangdong province, China, including Zhuhai (Jiuzhou), Zhongshan, Lianhua Shan, Jiangmen, Gongyi, Sanbu, Gaoming, Heshan, Humen, Nanhai, Shunde, Doumen, Zhaoqing.

3 (1999 est.)
Airports – with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Kai Tak International Airport was famous, but it was retired as an airport in favor of “Chek Lap Kok International Airport”, which is another name for Hong Kong International Airport. The latter now serves as the region’s main gateway.

2 (1999 est.)

One heliport is located in the Hong Kong Macau Ferry Terminal, by the Shun Tak Centre, in Sheung Wan, on Hong Kong Island
Another is located in Admiralty, next to the CITIC Tower
East Asia Airlines operates a regular helicopter service between Macau Ferry Terminal and Shun Tak Centre. There are around 16 daily helicopter round-trips. Flights take approximately 20 minutes in the eight-seat aircraft.

There are also a number of helipads across the territory, including:

Roof of the Peninsula Hotel – the only rooftop helipad in the territory, excluding the rooftop heliport of Shun Tak Centre
Cheung Chau island, between Tung Wan Beach and Kwun Yam Beach
Ping Chau

Hong Kong International Airport

Hong Kong International Airport is popularly referred to as Chek Lap Kok Airport, after Chek Lap Kok, one of the islands that make up the airport’s 1,248-hectare platform reclaimed from sea. HKIA was built on an artificial island built with tons of landfill, and is connected to the north side of Lantau Island and the newly developed city of Tung Chung.

Chek Lap Kok is the replacement for the old Hong Kong International Airport, popularly known as Kai Tak International Airport, which had a spectacular urban approach, causing noise pollution for nearby residents. After complaints from residents and pilots flying to Hong Kong, Kai Tak was retired after operations were moved to Chek Lap Kok. Many aviation enthusiasts were upset with the death of Kai Tak, because of the unique approach. Pilots had to use a checkerboard on a hill to safely land at Kai Tak. Chep Lap Kok’s landing is an ordinary landing.

HKIA is the hub of Cathay Pacific, the Hong Kong flag carrier. Its IATA Airport Code is HKG, which is the same as what Kai Tak once had.

Opened in July 6, 1998, it took six years and US $20 billion to build. For three to five months after its opening, it suffered various severe organizational, mechanical, and technical problems that almost crippled the airport. At one time, the government reopened the cargo terminal at Kai Tak Airport to handle freight traffic due to a breakdown at the new cargo terminal, named Super One. Luckily, things started to settle down after six months and the airport started to operate normally.

On 22 August 1999, Mandarin Airlines Flight 642, which was landing in Tropical Storm Sam at Hong Kong International Airport on a route from Don Muang International Airport in Bangkok to Hong Kong, rolled upside down on the runway. The plane came to rest upside down. 3 of the passengers died.

In May 25, 2002, China Airlines Flight 611 broke up in midflight on the way to Hong Kong International Airport from Chiang Kai Shek International Airport in Taipei, Taiwan. All of the passengers on board perished.

The airport can be reached by the Airport Express, a dedicated high-speed rail link provided by MTR. It takes 23 minutes to reach the airport from Hong Kong Station which is located in Central, in the Central and Western district on Hong Kong Island. In-town check-in is available at Hong Kong Station for most airlines.

Check-in Aisles
Airline check-in at HKIA is divided into eight aisles as passengers enter the airport.

Aisle B
Cathay Pacific

Aisle C
Air Mauritius
Cathay Pacific
Royal Brunei
Vietnam Airlines

Aisle D
Biman Bangladesh
China Airlines
Malaysia Airlines
Mandarin Airlines
President Airlines
Royal Nepal
Singapore Airlines
South African Airways
Swiss International Airlines

Aisle E
All Nippon Airways
Korean Air
Malaysia Airlines
Singapore Airlines
Thai Airways International

Aisle F
EVA Airways
Mekong Airlines
Philippine Airlines
Virgin Atlantic

Aisle G
Air Canada
Air New Zealand
Air Philippines
Ethiopian Airlines
Japan Airlines
Japan Asia Airways
Orient Thai Airlines
United Airlines

Aisle H
Air France
Air India
Cebu Pacific
China Eastern Airlines
El Al
Garuda Indonesia
Northwest Airlines
Pacific Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines
Turkish Airlines

Aisle J
Air China
Australian Airlines
British Airways
China Southern Airlines
Continental Airlines
Continental Micronesia
Gulf Air
Xiamen Airlines